When measuring students’ fluency, Learning A-Z recommends using research-based fluency targets. To that end,
we’ve provided suggested targets from some of the leading researchers in the field, Tim Rasinski and Jan
Hasbrouck and Gerald Tindal.
Use the rate recommendations from the table with the Fluency Practice Passages and Fluency Timed Reading
assessments to help determine whether students are making progress toward or nearing grade-level standards for
oral reading fluency.
*Rasinski, T. & Padak, N. (2005). 3-Minute Reading Assessments. New York, NY: Scholastic Inc.
**Hasbrouck, J. & Tindal, G. (2017). An update to compiled ORF norms (Technical Report No.
1702). Eugene, OR: Behavioral Research and Teaching, University of Oregon.
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