Fluency refers to a student's speed, smoothness, and ease of oral reading. Fluent readers read more quickly and smoothly, allowing them to focus on comprehension. Fluent readers gain more meaning from the text they read. Because fluency leads to comprehension, fluent readers enjoy reading more than students who devote all their energy to sounding out words.
Fluency PassagesPassages are provided for each level F through Z. Some passages have been written to explicitly support the content and vocabulary of specific leveled books. Build more confidence and increase comprehension by introducing the passages before the books so students can quickly and accurately recognize new words in their leveled books. Look for a leveled book title next to the fluency passage title. Please select a level below for a list of passages at that level.
Fluency Assessment PassagesA collection of passages is provided for the sole purpose of administering official fluency assessments. A passage is provided for each level--F through Z.
Fluency Assessment Passages
Fluency Standards TableRecommended reading rates, or words read per minute, for grades one through six were examined from three separate research studies. The findings of these studies were used by Reading A-Z to establish an average early and end reading rate per grade level. Your student's reading rates can be compared to these average rates as a way to determine whether they are making progress in their ability to recognize words automatically. The comparison can also be used to determine whether a student's reading rate is near the grade level standard. For example, a beginning third grade student with a reading rate of 110 WPM can be considered on level. However, a third grade student with a reading rate of 60 WPM is recognizing words at a rate similar to a first grader and will likely need additional instructional support to increase his or her reading rate.
Fluency Standards Table
Fluency Teaching TipsReading A-Z's Fluency Passages are designed for a one-minute read, allowing students to do several readings of each passage to improve reading rate and accuracy. For more help on how to use the Fluency Assessment Passages see Fluency Teaching Tips
Using Reader's Theater to Teach FluencyWhat is Reader's Theater?
Reader's Theater Scripts are adapted from our leveled books and other sources. They are simple play scripts that students can perform in the classroom without the need for props, costumes, or a set. Reading scripts aloud gives students essential practice in oral reading fluency and public speaking. The scripts also provide a great opportunity for group interaction and student cooperation. Reader's theater offers an easy and dynamic way to practice reading. The Reader's Theater Teaching Tips offer great ideas on various ways to use the scripts in the classroom.
According to research, reader's theater is an excellent way to promote fluency. By using Reader's Theater Scripts, you encourage students to read with expression and to practice important fluency attributes, such as pause, inflection, and intonation.
Taking on character roles helps students understand literary elements, such as motivation and characterization. Reader's Theater Scripts also promote listening skills as students follow along silently and listen for spoken cues. The scripts provide a great opportunity for student cooperation, and they're a fun break from the usual reading routine.
Reader's Theater Teaching Tips
Reader's Theater Scripts