Changing Seasons
Level F

About the Book

Text Type: Nonfiction/Informational
Page Count: 10
Word Count: 173

Text Summary
In Changing Seasons, readers learn about the changes that occur with each season. The lengths of day and night, as well as the cycle of plant growth and the change in temperatures, are explained by a young narrator. Engaging illustrations supplement the text.

About the Lesson

Targeted Reading Strategy

  • Make, revise, and confirm predictions


  • Make, revise, and confirm predictions to understand text
  • Classify information
  • Blend phonemes
  • Read words with digraph ch
  • Identify and read words with the -er ending
  • Use content words


  • Book -- Changing Seasons (copy for each student)
  • Chalkboard or dry erase board
  • Classify information, content vocabulary worksheets
  • Word journal (optional)

 Indicates an opportunity for student to mark in the book. (All activities may be completed with paper and pencil if you choose not to have students mark the books.)


  • High-frequency words: have, where, then
  • Content words: spring, summer, fall, winter, snow, melts, hot, cooler, shorter, longer, cycle, weather, season, warmer

Before Reading

Build Background

  • Ask students to name the four seasons. Ask them to describe the weather during each season.
  • Have students share their favorite season. Ask them to explain why they like that season best, what activities they do during that time of year, and how they dress.

Book Walk

Introduce the Book
  • Show students the front and back covers of the book and read the title with them. Ask what they might read about in a book called Changing Seasons. (Accept any answers students can justify.) Ask if the picture on the back cover looks anything like the picture they made in their mind during the Build Background discussion.
  • Show students the title page. Discuss the information on the page (title of book, author’s name, illustrator's name).

Introduce the Reading Strategy: Make, revise, and confirm predictions

  • Explain to students that good readers make predictions, or guesses, about what will happen in a story. Explain to them that making predictions can help people to make decisions, solve problems, and learn new information. Emphasize that knowing how to make predictions is more important than whether the prediction is right, or confirmed.
  • Model using the cover pictures of the book to make a prediction.
    Think-aloud: I know that good readers always look at the cover of a book to get an idea of what the book is about. Looking at the cover pictures, I can make a good guess that I am going to read about the four seasons: spring, summer, fall, and winter. I think the book will tell me about things that happen in each of the seasons. The picture on the back cover makes me think that the girl is giving a report at school about the seasons. Making predictions about the book gets me thinking about it and gives me a purpose for reading it because I want to find out what the book tells about seasons and see if my predictions are right.
  • Have students use the pictures on the covers and title page to make a prediction before reading the book. Invite them to share their prediction.
  • Have students read the remainder of the book. Remind them to make, revise, or confirm a prediction as they read.
  • As students read, encourage them to use other reading strategies in addition to the targeted strategy presented in this section. For tips on additional reading strategies, click here.
Introduce the Vocabulary
  • Introduce any words that may be difficult for students. For example, on page 3, you might say: What kind of weather do you think the pictures on the wall are meant to show? How does weather change during the year?
  • Model how to apply word-attack strategies. Point to the word weather.
  • Think-aloud: I recognize the -er ending on the word and I see this word has ea together in the middle of the word. I know that ea sometimes stands for the long /e/ sound, so I'll try that first: weether. Hmmm, that doesn't sound right, so I'll try the short sound: weather. That's better. Now I'll read the sentence aloud to check whether or not this word makes sense.
  • Encourage students to add the new vocabulary words to their word journals.
  • For additional tips on teaching high-frequency words or word-attack strategies, click here.

Set the Purpose

  • Have students read to find out whether or not their prediction about the story is correct or it needs to be revised.

During Reading

Student Reading

  • Guide the reading: Give students their copy of the book. Have a volunteer point to the first word on page 3. Read the word together (I). Point out where to begin reading on each page. Remind students to read words from left to right. Point to each word as you read it aloud while students follow along in their own book.
  • Ask students to place a finger on the page number in the bottom corner of the page. Have them read to the end of page 5, using their finger to point to each word as they read. Encourage students who finish before others to reread the text.
  • Model confirming a prediction.
    Think-aloud: I predicted the book would tell me about each season. I think this prediction is correct. On page 4, the narrator lists all four seasons. So far, I have learned about the weather, length of day, and clothing related to spring. I predict that the next season mentioned in the book will be summer.
  • Ask students whether or not they can confirm their prediction based on the words they read and the pictures. Have them revise their prediction or make a new prediction.
  • Have students read the remainder of the book. Encourage them to continue to make, revise, and/or confirm predictions as they read the rest of the story.

Have students make a small question mark in their book beside any word they do not understand or cannot pronounce. These can be addressed in the discussion that follows.

After Reading

Reflect on the Reading Strategy

  • Ask students what words, if any, they marked in their book. Use this opportunity to model how they can read these words using decoding strategies and context clues.
  • Invite students to discuss whether their prediction turned out to be true or whether it needed to be revised. Reinforce that making predictions about what they are reading helps them get meaning from the book and gives them a purpose for reading.
  • Think-aloud: I predicted that the next season mentioned in the book would be summer. This prediction was correct. All four seasons were mentioned in the book in order.
  • Discuss additional strategies students used to gain meaning from the book.

Teach the Comprehension Skill: Classify information

  • Discussion: Discuss with students the similarities and differences between the four seasons.
  • Introduce and model the skill: Write the following words on the board: zebra, lion, giraffe, bat, bird. Read the words aloud with students. Tell students that sorting information into groups helps readers think about and remember what they read.
  • Model how to classify information.
    Think-aloud: As I thought about how to group these animals, I started by asking myself what they have in common. Some of these animals move on land, some move in the air, and some move in the water. I know that the zebra, lion, and giraffe have legs that allow them to move on land. A bat and a bird have wings that allow them to move through the air. Write the animals from the discussion under appropriate headings on the board.
  • Check for understanding: Ask students to work with a partner to group the animals a different way. Have them write or draw their groups on a separate piece of paper. Invite them to share how they grouped the animals.
  • Independent practice: Introduce, explain, and have students complete the classify information worksheet. If time allows, discuss their answers.

Instruct students to color the page in the book that shows their favorite season.

Build Skills

Phonological Awareness: Blend phonemes

  • Say the word spring by segmenting it into its individual sounds: /s/ /p/ /r/ /i/ /ng/. Model blending the sounds together to say the word.
  • Say the following words by segmenting them into their individual sounds: days, jacket, summer, plants, growing, sweater, change. Pause after saying each word and have students blend the sounds together to say the word.

Phonics: Digraph ch

  • Have students read the first sentence with you and listen for a word that starts with the /ch/ sound (changes). Tell students that the letters c and h together stand for the /ch/ sound. Have students point to the letters on the page that stand for the /ch/ sound. Have them look on page 9 to find another word that starts with the /ch/ sound (changed).
  • Write the following words on the board: chip, chop, champ, chess. Have students blend the sounds together as you run your finger under the letters. Have individual students come to the board and circle the letters that stand for the /ch/ sound.
  • Write the word bench on the board and have students read it with you. Tell students they can also find the ch digraph at the end of words. Have a volunteer come to the board and circle the letters that stand for the /ch/ sound in the word.
  • Write the following words on the board: each, much, inch, peach, rich, such. Have students blend the sounds together in each word as you run your finger under the letters.

Grammar and Mechanics: Ending -er

  • Have students point to the word on page 7 that tells how days get (shorter). Have them tell you the root word. Point out that the word ends with a vowel and a consonant: er. Say the sound the -er letter combination stands for. Repeat the process with the word longer on the same page.
  • Have them look on page 9 to find how the weather is (warmer). Have them tell you what the root word is and how to say the -er ending.
  • Have students look on page 6 to find out how plants grow (bigger). Have them find the word big inside the word and frame it with their fingers. Explain that sometimes when they add the -er ending to words, they need to double the final consonant. Explain that this often happens when there is only one consonant at the end of the word.
  • Write the following words on the board and have students add the -er ending to each: dark, soft, kind.

Word Work: Content vocabulary

  • Tell students that many of the words they read in the book tell about the seasons. Provide opportunities for students to talk about difficult words such as cycle and winter. Ask students to look for a word chunk at the beginning of the word winter (win).
  • Discuss the meanings of the words spring, summer, fall, and winter. Draw connections between those meanings and the events that occur during these seasons. Have students draw pictures on the board related to each season.
  • Provide opportunities for students to say the new vocabulary words, talk about their meanings, and use the words in sentences.
  • Independent practice: Introduce, explain, and have students complete the content vocabulary worksheet. If time allows, discuss their answers

Build Fluency

Independent Reading

  • Allow students to read their book independently. Additionally, partners can take turns reading parts of the book to each other.

Home Connection

  • Give students their book to take home to read with parents, caregivers, siblings, or friends.

Extend the Reading

Writing and Art Connection
Ask students to decide which season is their favorite. Tell them to think of a reason why. Provide an example for them: My favorite season is fall. I like it because the leaves are pretty colors. Have students use the following sentence pattern to write about the seasons: My favorite season is _____. I like it because ______. Tell students to illustrate their sentences. Display on a bulletin board titled Changing Seasons.

Science and Math Connection
Show students a 12-month calendar. Write the names of the seasons on the board. Ask students to tell which months belong to which seasons. Typically, the months are divided as follows: spring: March, April, May; summer: June, July, August; fall: September, October, November; winter: December, January, February. Extend the activity by polling students to find out how many have birthdays in each season. Tally the totals for each season.


Monitor students to determine if they can:

  • make logical predictions based on information in the book; understand when they should revise or confirm their predictions
  • correctly classify information during discussion and on a worksheet
  • orally blend sounds to say words
  • recognize and read words with the digraph ch
  • recognize words with the -er ending and identify the root word; add -er endings to words
  • read and identify meanings for content words

Comprehension Checks

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