What Animals Eat
Level C

About the Book

Text Type: Nonfiction/Informational
Page Count: 10
Word Count: 62

Book Summary
Cows eat grass, birds eat seeds, and monkeys eat fruit. This is no surprise, but the goat's diet is sure to surprise and delight readers. Patterned text repeats essential high-frequency words while introducing readers to new words.

About the Lesson

Targeted Reading Strategy

  • Make, revise, and confirm predictions


  • Use the strategy of making, revising, and confirming predictions to make meaning from text
  • Identify author's purpose
  • Orally discriminate medial sounds in words
  • Associate the letter Ll with the sound /l/
  • Identify nouns
  • Categorize words


  • Book -- What Animals Eat (copy for each student)
  • Chalkboard or dry erase board
  • Author's purpose, medial vowel sounds worksheets
  • Word journal (optional)

Indicates an opportunity for student to mark in the book. (All activities may be completed with paper and pencil if books are reusable.)


  • High-frequency words: that, is, my, like
  • Content words: munch, crunch, zap, slurp, gulp

Before Reading

Build Background

  • Have students think about animals they have seen on television or in real life. Ask students to name kinds of animals they have seen. Ask them to describe the kinds of foods these animals eat.

Book Walk

Introduce the Book
  • Show students the front and back covers of the book and read the title with them. Ask what they might read about in a book called What Animals Eat. (Accept any answers students can justify.) Ask what the animals on the front and back cover are eating. Have students think of some animals that might be in the book. Help them narrow their predictions by asking: Do you think the animals in this book are going to be wild animals or pets?
  • Show students the title page. Discuss the information on the page (title of book, author's name, illustrator's name). Talk about the panda and what it is eating. Ask them to revise or confirm their ideas about whether the book is about pets or wild animals.
  • Write the following repetitive phrase from the book on the board: _____ like to eat _____. Read the phrase aloud with students. Explain that these words repeat throughout the book.

Introduce the Reading Strategy: Make, revise, and confirm predictions

  • Explain that good readers make predictions, or guesses, about what will happen in a story. Explain that making predictions can help people make decisions, solve problems, and learn new information. Emphasize that making predictions is more important than whether the prediction is right, or confirmed.
  • Model making predictions.
  • Think-aloud: I know that good readers always look at the cover of a book to get an idea of what the book is about. Looking at the cover pictures, I can make a good guess that I am going to read about things that wild animals eat. I get more information when I look at the title page and I see another wild animal. This makes me think that my prediction about wild animals in the book is correct. I think maybe there might be other wild animals, such as tigers or maybe deer. Making predictions about the book gets me thinking about it and gives me a purpose for reading it because I want to find out what animals are in the book and what they eat.
  • Have students make a prediction based on the pictures on the covers. Invite them to share their predictions.
  • As students read, encourage them to use other reading strategies in addition to the targeted strategy presented in this section. For tips on additional reading strategies, click here.
Introduce the Vocabulary
  • Remind students to use what they know about sounds and letters to help them figure out new words. Tell them to use the picture clues and to reread the sentence with the new word to make sure it makes sense. For example, on page 3, say: I know that the first sentence tells me the kind of animal and what it eats. The picture shows a cow. The word cow begins with the /k/ sound. The letter c can make the /k/ sound and the word begins with the letter c. Now I need to think about what a cow eats. When I look at the picture, the cow seems to be laying on grass. It has some in its mouth. The word begins with the letter g. The word might be grass. If I use the word cows and grass in the first sentence, it makes sense.
  • Encourage students to add the new vocabulary words to their word journals.
  • For additional tips on teaching high-frequency words or word-attack strategies, click here.

Set the Purpose

  • Have students read the book to find out what the animals in the book eat.

During Reading

Student Reading

  • Guide the reading: Give students their copy of the book. Have a volunteer point to the first word on page 3. Read the word together (Cows). Point to where to begin reading on each page. Remind students to read words from left to right. Point to each word as you read it aloud while students follow along in their own book.
  • Ask students to place a finger on the page number in the bottom corner of the page. Have them read to the end of page 5, using their finger to point to each word as they read. Encourage students who finish before others to reread the text.
  • Model revising a prediction.
    Think-aloud: I predicted that the book would be about wild animals and what they eat. My prediction may need to be revised. I don't think a cow is a wild animal, and I know some people even have a cow as a pet. I think I will read about different kinds of animals in this book and what they like to eat.
  • Have students share the prediction they made before reading and the outcome of that prediction. Then have them revise or make a new prediction about the story.
  • Have students read the remainder of the story to check their prediction.

Have students make a small question mark in their book beside any word they do not understand or cannot pronounce. These can be addressed in the discussion that follows.

After Reading

Reflect on the Reading Strategy

  • Ask students what words, if any, they marked in their book. Use this opportunity to model how to read these words using decoding strategies and context clues.
  • Reinforce how making predictions about what they are reading helps students get meaning from the book and how it gives them a reason to read to find out whether their predictions are correct. Have students share the outcomes of their predictions.
  • Think-aloud: I predicted that the book would be about all kinds of animals and what they eat. This prediction was correct. On page 9, I learned that goats don't have one favorite food--they like to eat everything.
  • Discuss additional strategies students used to gain meaning from the book.

Teach the Comprehension Skill: Author's purpose

  • Discussion: Ask students what new things they learned from reading this book. Ask which animal was their favorite. Ask which animal was the funniest and why.
  • Introduce and model the skill: Explain that authors write books for three different reasons: to give readers information (inform), to try to make readers think the same way they do (persuade), or to entertain readers. Make a tree diagram on the board similar to the one on the author's purpose worksheet. Show students pages 3 and 4 in the book.
  • Think-aloud: On page 3, I learned that cows eat grass. I am going to put the words cows and grass on the diagram under the heading Inform because this gives me information about cows and what they eat. The next page tells me that birds eat seeds. I am going to put the words birds and seeds on the diagram under the heading Inform because this gives me information about birds and what they eat.
  • Check for understanding: Ask students to reread page 5. Ask them what the most important thing is that they want to remember about the page and whether the information informs, persuades, or entertains readers. Write pandas and leaves on the diagram under the heading Inform.
  • Independent practice: Introduce, explain, and have students complete the author's purpose worksheet. If time allows, discuss their answers.
  • Extend the discussion: Ask students if they think the food in the book is the only food each animal eats. Ask students how they would find out the answer to that question (read a library book, ask a teacher or parent, watch a program on TV). Ask teams of students to select an animal that was not in the book, find out what it eats, and report back to the class.

Build Skills

Phonological Awareness: Discriminate medial sounds

  • Say the words zap and cat. Then say each word again, emphasizing the medial vowel sound. Have students repeat the words and the middle sound. Ask students whether the sounds are alike. Repeat the process with the words stop and hot.
  • Tell students you are going to say three words. Two of the words have the same middle sound, and one has a different middle sound. Have them tell you which two words have the same sound. Say the following groups of words, one group at a time, emphasizing the medial vowel sound: book/good/bone; grass/goat/hat; cow/meal/seat; top/hot/hen; sip/bet/tin; fin/fed/ten.
  • Independent practice: Introduce, explain and have students complete the medial vowel sounds worksheet. If time allows, discuss their answers.

Phonics: Initial consonant Ll

  • Have students turn to page 3 and put their finger on the word like. Cover the letters i, k, and e. Ask students to say the word without these letter sounds.
  • Run your finger under each letter in the word as you blend together the letter sounds in the word like. Ask students which letter stands for the /l/ sound. Circle the letter l in the word. Explain to students that the letter Ll stands for the /l/ sound they hear in the word like. Have students practice writing the letter Ll on a separate piece of paper while saying the sound aloud.
  • Tell students they are going to read some words that start with the /l/ sound. Write the words lip, lap, lot, let, and lug on the board. Ask students what they notice about the way the words begin (all begin with the letter Ll and the /l/ sound).
  • Have students follow along with you as you sound out the word lip, running your finger under each letter in the word. Repeat with the remaining words.

Grammar and Mechanics: Nouns

  • Remind students that there are some words that name people, places, and things. Ask students to turn to page 3. Point out that the word cows names an animal, or thing. Ask students if they can find another naming word on the page (grass).
  • Ask students to name people, places, and things. Write and/or draw each noun on the board.

Have students circle each noun they find in the book. Have students share the words they find.

Word Work: Categorize words

  • Ask students what all of the words in the book were about (animals and what they like to eat). Review the naming words (cows, birds, pandas, frogs, monkeys, seals, goats, grass, seeds, leaves, bugs, fruit, fish). Tell students that these words can be put into two groups. Ask students to tell what the groups are (animals, foods animals eat).
  • Have students brainstorm words to add to the two categories of words.

Build Fluency

Independent Reading

  • Allow students to read their book independently or with a partner. Additionally, partners can take turns reading parts of the book.

Home Connection

  • Give students their book to take home to read with parents, caregivers, siblings, or friends.

Extend the Reading

Writing Connection
Have students brainstorm a list of other animals and the things they like to eat, such as: elephant/peanuts, horse/hay, cats/cat food, dolphins/fish. Record this information on a chart. Have students suggest sounds these animals might make while eating, and add these words to the list next to the animal's name. Write the sentence ___ eat ____. ____, _____. on the board. Ask students to choose an animal, use the sentence pattern to create their own sentence, and illustrate it on a separate piece of paper. (For example: Rabbits eat carrots. Crunch, crunch.)

    Science Connection
    Have students use the Internet to research an animal. Have them identify information such as: what the animal looks like, what it eats, and where it lives. Have them draw a picture of the animal eating the food in its habitat.


      Monitor students to determine if they can:

      • make logical predictions about the book from picture clues and confirm or revise as necessary
      • record important information about the story during discussion; use the information from the discussion to complete a worksheet
      • discriminate medial sounds correctly during discussion and on a worksheet
      • correctly associate the letter Ll with the sound /l/ during discussion
      • correctly identify the nouns in the book
      • correctly categorize words into groups during discussion

      Comprehension Checks

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