About the Book
Text Type: Nonfiction/Informational
Page Count: 10
Word Count: 25
Students will learn about the different types of coverings that animals have in this informational text. Photographs, repetitive text, and high-frequency words support emergent readers.
About the Lesson
Targeted Reading Strategy
- Connect to prior knowledge
- Use the reading strategy of connecting to prior knowledge to understand text
- Identify main idea and details
- Discriminate initial consonant sound /f/
- Identify initial consonant Ff
- Recognize and use nouns
- Identify and use high-frequency word we
- Book -- Animal Coverings (copy for each student)
- Chalkboard or dry erase board
- Main idea and details, initial consonant Ff, nouns worksheets
Indicates an opportunity for student to mark in the book. (All activities may be completed with paper and pencil if books are reusable.)
- High-frequency words: have, just, we
- Content words: armor, feathers, fur, hair, scales, shells, skin, spines
- Write the words animal coverings on the board and point to the words as you read them aloud to students. Repeat the process and have students say the words aloud.
- Invite students to name kinds of animals they know and the types of coverings they have on their bodies. Make a chart on the board of kinds of animals and their coverings.
Introduce the Book
- Show students the front and back covers of the book and read the title with them. Ask what they think they might read about in a book called Animal Coverings. (Accept all answers that students can justify.)
- Show students the title page. Discuss the information on the page (title of book, author's name).
- Write the following repetitive phrase on the board: We have _____. Read the words aloud with students. Explain that these words repeat throughout the book.
Introduce the Reading Strategy: Connect to prior knowledge
- Explain that good readers make connections between what they already know and new information they read. Remind students that thinking about what they already know about the topic of the book will help them understand what they read.
- Model connecting to prior knowledge using the information on the covers.
Think-aloud: When I look at the front cover of Animal Coverings, I see an animal with many feathers. I know that birds are animals and that their bodies are covered with feathers. The spots on the feathers remind me of giant eyes. I know that some animals use markings on their body to frighten away other animals that might want to eat them. The information I already know about animals and their coverings will help me read and understand the information in the book.
- As students read, encourage them to use other reading strategies in addition to the targeted strategy presented in this section. For tips on additional reading strategies, click here.
Introduce the Comprehension Skill: Main idea and details
- Explain that every book has a big, or main idea, which is the most important thing the book is about. Read the title to students. Explain that the title often provides clues about the book's main idea. Invite students to share predictions about the main idea of this book.
- Explain that the main, or big, idea of this book is: Animals have many different kinds of coverings. Write the following sentence on the board: Animals have many different kinds of coverings. Point to each word as you read the sentence aloud with students.
- Model how to identify details.
Think-aloud: I know that every book has details that help explain the big idea. I know that this book is about animals and their coverings. I see a picture on the back cover of a dog. I know that dogs have fur covering their body. Fur is a type of covering that many animals have. Since this type of covering helps to explain the big idea, fur might be a detail in the book.
- Review the kinds of animals and their coverings that were discussed in the Build Background section. Discuss whether any of these types of coverings might be details in the book.
Introduce the Vocabulary
- While previewing the book, reinforce the vocabulary words students will encounter. For example, while looking at the picture on page 4, you might say: The animals on this page are all birds. They all have feathers.
- Remind students to look at the picture and the letters with which a word begins or ends to figure out a difficult word. For example, point to the word fur on page 8 and say: I am going to check the pictures and think about what would make sense to figure out this word. The pictures show a dog, a bear, and a rabbit. When I look at the first part of the word, it starts like /f/. I know that all of these animals have fur that covers their body. The word fur starts with the /f/ sound. The sentence makes sense with this word. The word must be fur.
- For additional tips on teaching high-frequency words and word-attack strategies, click here.
Set the Purpose
- Have students use what they already know about animals and their coverings to help them read the book. Remind them to think about the details that support the main idea as they read.
- Guide the reading: Give students their copy of the book. Have a volunteer point to the first word on page 3 (We). Point out to students where to begin reading on each page. Remind them to read the words from left to right.
- Ask students to place a finger on the page number in the bottom corner of the page. Have them read to the end of page 5, using their finger to point to each word as they read. Encourage students who finish before others to reread the text.
- Model connecting to prior knowledge.
Think-aloud: On page 5, I see two turtles and a snail. These three animals have shells. I've found shells on the beach before, and I know that shells are very hard. Something this hard must help protect these animals from getting hurt. Shells are a type of covering that some animals have.
- Invite students to share how they connected with what they already knew as they read.
- Review the main idea of the book: Animals have many different kinds of coverings. Ask students to explain whether shells is a detail that supports the main idea of the book and why (yes; a shell is a type of animal covering).
- Introduce and explain the main idea and details worksheet. Write the word shells on the board. Have students write the word and draw a picture that represents a shell in one of the spaces on their worksheet.
- Check for understanding: Have students read to the end of page 8. Encourage them to share how they connected to prior knowledge as they read. (Accept all answers that show students understand how to connect to prior knowledge.)
- Ask students to think about other details they read that support the main idea of the book. Ask them to draw and label another detail from the book that supports the main idea. Have students share the detail they drew and wrote about.
- Have students read the remainder of the book. Remind them to use what they already know about animals and their coverings to help them understand new information as they read.
Have students make a small question mark in their book beside any word they do not understand or cannot pronounce. These can be addressed in the discussion that follows.
Reflect on the Reading Strategy
- Ask students what words, if any, they marked in their book. Use this opportunity to model how they can read these words using decoding strategies and context clues.
- Think-aloud: When I read page 10, I thought about animals and their coverings. The animals on this page only have skin covering their bodies. This means that skin is a kind of covering. This reminds me of other animals, such as whales, whose covering is mostly skin. Whales have a layer of blubber under their skin that helps them stay warm and protect them from cold temperatures. I wonder whether the hairless dogs and cat pictured on the page are protected with something other than their skin. I used what I already know to read this page and better understand the idea.
- Ask students to explain how thinking about what they already knew helped them understand and remember the information in the book. Invite them to share additional ways they connected to prior knowledge.
Reflect on the Comprehension Skill
- Discussion: Review the main idea of the book with students. Discuss the details students drew on their worksheet. Invite them to explain why each of the details on their worksheet supports the main idea of the book.
- Independent practice: Have students complete the main idea and details worksheet.
- Enduring understanding: In this book, you learned about different kinds of animal coverings. Now that you know this information, why don't all animals have the same kind of covering?
Phonological Awareness: Discriminate initial consonant sound /f/
- Say the word fur aloud to students, emphasizing the /f/ sound. Have students say the word aloud and then say the /f/ sound.
- Read pages 4 and 8 aloud to students. Have them raise their hand when they hear a word that begins with the /f/ sound.
- Check for understanding: Say the following words one at a time and have students give the thumbs-up signal if the word begins with the /f/ sound: fish, turtle, ladybug, flamingo, father.
Phonics: Identify initial consonant Ff
- Write the word fur on the board and say it aloud with students.
- Have students say the /f/ sound aloud. Then run your finger under the letters in the word as students say the whole word aloud. Ask students what letter stands for the /f/ sound in the word fur.
- Have students practice writing the letter Ff on a separate piece of paper as they say the sound of the letter.
- Check for understanding: Write the following words that begin with the /f/ sound on the board, leaving off the initial consonant: fat, fan, fit. Say each word, one at a time, and have volunteers come to the board and add the initial consonant to the words.
- Independent practice: Introduce, explain, and have students complete the initial consonant Ff worksheet. If time allows, discuss their answers.
Grammar and Mechanics: Nouns
- Show students a picture of a person, a place, and a thing. Ask volunteers to identify the pictures and tell which one is a person, a place, and a thing. Point out to students that words name a person, a place, or a thing are called nouns.
- Have students turn to page 3 in their book. Invite them to read the page together, pointing to the words as you read them aloud. Ask students to point to the word that names a thing (scales).
Check for understanding: Have students reread the book and underline all of the nouns. When they have finished, discuss with students whether the nouns they underlined name a person, a place, or a thing.
- Independent practice: Introduce, explain, and have students complete the nouns worksheet. If time allows, discuss their answers.
Word Work: High-frequency word we
- Tell students they are going to learn a word that they will often see in books they read. Write the word we on the board and read the word aloud. Have students read the word aloud with you.
- Ask students to write the word we on a separate piece of paper as you spell it aloud to them, pointing to each letter on the board as you say the letter name with students.
- Read the sentence on page 3 aloud to students. Explain that the word we is used to identify all of the animals on the page. Point to the pictures of the animals on the page and say: We have scales.
- Invite student volunteers to come to the front of the classroom. Say: The students and I are in the classroom. We are in the classroom. Have students identify the people the word we stands for.
- Check for understanding: Have students use the word we in oral sentences to tell about themselves and their classmates.
- Allow students to read their book independently or with a partner. Additionally, partners can take turns reading parts of the book to each other.
- Give students their book to take home to read with parents, caregivers, siblings, or friends. Have them explain the main idea and details of this book to someone at home.
Extend the Reading
Informational Writing and Art Connection
Provide students with books on different animals. Have them choose an animal and describe its covering. Have them draw and label a picture of the animal and its covering using the following sentence: We have _________. Combine the pages into a class book. Reinforce nouns and the high-frequency word we.
Make a list of the animal coverings in the book. Identify with students the kinds of animals with each kind of covering. Discuss how each kind of covering helps or protects each animal.
Monitor students to determine if they can:
- consistently connect to prior knowledge to understand text
- accurately identify the main idea and details during discussion and on a worksheet
- correctly discriminate between words that begin with the /f/ sound
- accurately identify and write the letter symbol that stands for the /f/ sound during discussion and on a worksheet
- correctly identify nouns during discussion and on a worksheet
- accurately read, write, and understand the use of the high-frequency word we during discussion
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