About the Book
Text Type: Nonfiction/Concept
Page Count: 12
Word Count: 28
What are opposites? Students have the opportunity to learn about opposite words in this book with supportive photographs. High-frequency words and repetitive text make this book easy for early readers.
About the Lesson
Targeted Reading Strategy
- Use the reading strategy of visualizing to understand text
- Identify author's purpose
- Discriminate words in a sentence
- Identify initial consonant Ss
- Recognize periods
- Identify and write the high-frequency word is
- Book -- Opposites (copy for each student)
- Chalkboard or dry erase board
- Visualize, initial consonant Ss, periods worksheets
- Discussion cards
Indicates an opportunity for students to mark in the book. (All activities may be completed with paper and pencil if books are reused.)
- High-frequency words: is, off, on, this, up
- Content words: closed, down, fast, open, slow
- Write the word opposites on the board and point to the word as you read it aloud to students. Repeat the process and have students say the word aloud.
- Draw a small and big version of the same object on the board. Encourage students to explain how the two drawings are different from one another (one is big, the other is small). Point out that big and small are opposite words. Have students name other opposites they know and write them on the board.
Introduce the Book
- Show students the front and back covers of the book and read the title with them. Ask what they think they might read about in a book called Opposites. (Accept all answers that students can justify.)
- Show students the title page. Discuss the information on the page (title of book, author's name).
Introduce the Reading Strategy: Visualize
- Explain that good readers often visualize, or make pictures in their mind, as they read. Readers often use what they already know about a topic to make the pictures in their mind.
- Model how to visualize.
Think-aloud: When I read a book, I pause after a few pages or after reading a description of something to create a picture in my mind of the information I've just read. This helps me understand the book. For example, when I heard the word happy, I pictured someone smiling and laughing. When I heard the word sad, I pictured a girl crying with tears rolling down her face. I understand that when people are happy, they look and act differently than when they are sad.
- Invite students to share what they visualized when they heard the words happy and sad.
- As students read, encourage them to use other reading strategies in addition to the targeted strategy presented in this section. For tips on additional reading strategies, click here.
Introduce the Comprehension Skill: Author's purpose
- Explain to students that authors usually have a reason, or purpose, for writing their book. The purpose is to teach, entertain, or persuade. Explain that teaching means that a person helps someone else learn or understand something; entertaining means to amuse someone or make him or her happy; and persuading means to convince someone to think the same way you do.
- Model determining author's purpose.
Think-aloud: When authors write, they have a reason, or purpose, for writing their book. They want to teach, entertain, or persuade readers. After reading the title and the first page of this book, I think the author wants readers to think about words that mean the opposite of each other. When I read books and think about new information, I usually learn new facts. I think the reason the author wrote this book is to teach readers about opposites.
Introduce the Vocabulary
- While previewing the book, reinforce the vocabulary words students will encounter. For example, while looking at the picture on page 6, you might say: It looks as though the light is on.
- Remind students to look at the picture and the letters with which a word begins or ends to figure out a difficult word. For example, point to the word down on page 5 and say: I am going to check the picture and think about what would make sense to figure out this word. The picture shows a girl on a seesaw. Her feet are on the ground. The boy on the other page is up in the air. When I look at the first part of the word, it starts like /d/. I know a word that is the opposite of up is down. The sentence makes sense with this word. The word must be down.
- For additional tips on teaching high-frequency words and word-attack strategies, click here.
Set the Purpose
- Have students read to learn about other kinds of opposites. Remind them to think about the author's purpose as they read the book.
- Guide the reading: Give students their copy of the book. Have a volunteer point to the first word on page 4 (This). Point out to students where to begin reading on each page. Remind them to read the words from left to right.
- Ask students to place their finger on the page number in the bottom corner of the page. Have them read to the end of page 6 using their finger to point to each word as they read. Encourage students who finish before others to reread the text.
- Model visualizing.
Think-aloud: As I read each page, I created a picture in my mind for each of the words I read. When I read about the light being on, I pictured a lamp beside my bed. It is on while I am reading before I go to sleep at night.
- Introduce and explain to students the visualize worksheet. Have students draw and label on their worksheet one picture they visualized in their mind. Invite them to share what they drew.
- Discuss with students the author's purpose for writing the book based on the pages they read so far (to teach). Ask them to tell what the book is teaching readers about (opposites).
- Check for understanding: Have students read to the end of page 8. Invite volunteers to explain what they visualized in their mind when they read about each of the pictures. (Accept any answers that show students understand how to visualize.)
- Have students write their visualizations on the worksheet. Have them include the page number and a descriptive label of what they visualized.
- Continue to discuss with students why the purpose of the book is to teach readers about something. Have students provide support for the purpose using examples from the book.
- Have students read the remainder of the book. Remind them to continue visualizing and thinking about the author's purpose as they read.
Have students make a small question mark in their book beside any word they do not understand or cannot pronounce. These can be addressed in the discussion that follows.
Reflect on the Reading Strategy
- Ask students what words, if any, they marked in their book. Use this opportunity to model how they can read these words using decoding strategies and context clues.
- Think-aloud: As I read, I continued to create pictures in my mind about the pairs of opposites in the book. When I read page 11, I pictured the turtle moving slowly across the grass. I know that the turtle moves in an opposite way from the rabbit on page 10. I pictured the rabbit hopping quickly into the bushes. Picturing the images in my mind helped me understand and enjoy reading the information the author wanted me to learn.
- Independent practice: Have students complete the visualize worksheet. If time allows, discuss their answers.
Reflect on the Comprehension Skill
Discussion: Discuss the author's purpose through the end of the book. Have students write teach on the inside front cover of the book. Invite them to write or draw the opposite pairs taught in the book on the inside back cover of their book.
- Enduring understanding: In this story, you learned many different opposites. Now that you know this information, why do you think it might be helpful to know these words?
Phonological Awareness: Word awareness
- Say the following phrase aloud: I am happy. Say the phrase again, clapping each word as you say it aloud. Explain that you said three words. Have students repeat the process with you.
- Explain to students that each clap represents a word. Point out that words in a sentence are separated by little pauses as they are read aloud. The pauses help listeners know where one word ends and a new word begins.
- Say: You are happy, too aloud to students, emphasizing each word in the sentence. Then have students clap each word in the sentence as they say it aloud with you. Ask them to identify the number of words in the sentence (4).
- Check for understanding: Say additional sentences aloud that contain one-syllable words. Have students clap and count the number of words together.
Phonics: Initial consonant Ss
- Write the word sad on the board and say it aloud with students.
- Have students say the /s/ sound aloud. Then run your finger under the letters in the word as students say the whole word aloud. Ask students to identify which letter represents the /s/ sound in the word sad.
- Check for understanding: Write the following words that begin with the /s/ sound on the board, leaving off the initial consonant: see, sat, sip. Say each word, one at a time, and have volunteers come to the board and add the initial Ss to each word.
- Independent practice: Introduce, explain, and have students complete the initial consonant Ss worksheet. If time allows, discuss their answers.
Grammar and Mechanics: Periods
- Write the following sentence on the board: This is up. Read the sentence aloud with students. Explain that every sentence has a signal at the end so readers will know when to stop reading. Ask a volunteer to come to the board and point to this signal at the end of the sentence.
- Explain that the signal is called a period. Have students say the word aloud. Point out that the period is like a stop sign because it tells readers when to stop reading.
- Ask several volunteers to identify an opposite in the book. Write a sentence on the board for each of the opposites named, leaving off the period at the end. Read the sentences aloud to students in a string without stopping. Then have volunteers come to the board and add a period to each sentence. Reread the sentences with students, stopping at the period at the end of each sentence.
Check for understanding: Have students reread the book and highlight all the periods in the book. Have them read the book to a partner and have each partner make sure they stop when they come to a period.
- Independent practice: Introduce, explain, and have students complete the periods worksheet. If time allows, discuss their answers.
Word Work: High-frequency word is
- Explain to students that they are going to learn a word that they will often see in books they read. Write the word is on the board and read the word aloud. Have students read the word with you.
- Have students write the word is on a sheet of paper. Encourage them to practice writing the word several more times.
- Explain that this word is used to tell more about something. For example, point to a book. Say: the book. Ask a volunteer to name a word that describes the book (square, big, small, and so on). Include the description in an oral sentence about the book using the word is. (The book is big.)
- Write and/or draw various classroom objects on the board. Invite volunteers to share sentences about each object using the word is.
- Check for understanding: Have each student use the word is aloud in a sentence.
- Allow students to read their book independently. Additionally, partners can take turns reading parts of the book to each other.
- Give students their book to take home to read with parents, caregivers, siblings, or friends. Have students share with someone at home what they visualized as they read each page and looked at each picture.
Extend the Reading
Writing and Art Connection
Have students choose a pair of opposites discussed in the lesson. Have them divide a piece of paper into two sides and illustrate an opposite on each side. Encourage them to label their drawing and share it with the group.
Take students on a walk around the school. Have them look for examples of opposites they find on the walk. Make a classroom chart with students that lists the opposite pairs found on the walk.
Discussion cards covering comprehension skills and strategies not explicitly taught with the book are provided as an extension activity. The following is a list of some ways these cards can be used with students:
- Use as discussion starters for literature circles.
- Have students choose one or more cards and write a response, either as an essay or a journal entry.
- Distribute before reading the book and have students use one of the questions as a purpose for reading.
- Cut apart and use the cards as game cards with a board game.
- Conduct a class discussion as a review before the book quiz.
Monitor students to determine if they can:
- accurately and consistently share examples of visualizing while reading and on a worksheet
- accurately determine the author's purpose during discussion
- accurately discriminate the number of words in a sentence during discussion
- correctly identify and write the letter symbol that represents the initial consonant /s/ sound during discussion and on a worksheet
- correctly identify and understand the use of periods during discussion and on a worksheet
- read, write, and understand the high-frequency word is
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