Structured literacy models are composed of explicit, systematic, sequential lessons in: Phonological Awareness and Phonics. Reading A-Z provides a wealth of Pre K-6 resources that can be used in a structured literacy setting—from whole-class and small-group instruction to individual practice.
1Phonological awareness is the ability to perceive sounds in spoken words, including rhyme, syllables, and phonemes.
Reading A-Z provides a vast collection of resources and a variety of ways to match resources to students' developmental levels and instructional needs.
- Word awareness is understanding that sentences are made up of individual words and the ability to identify each word in a sentence.
- When demonstrating word awareness, students are able to segment sentences, including counting the number of words in a sentence.
- Words are made up of one or more parts called syllables.
- During instruction, the teacher may have students count, blend, segment, add, and delete syllables.
Onset and Rime
- Words have a beginning part, or onset, and an ending part, or rime. (e.g., In the word bat, /b/ is the onset and /at/ is the rime.)
During instruction, students may practice blending and segmenting the onset and rime of words, which helps them decode and encode words.
- Foundational instruction should begin with phonemic awareness warm-ups that connect to the phonics skills that will be taught followed by a review of the skills previously learned.
- Phoneme isolation, phoneme blending, phoneme segmentation, phoneme manipulation, and onset and rime are all phonemic awareness tasks that prepare students for the phonics lesson.
- Phoneme isolation involves identifying and isolating the individual sounds (phonemes) in words.
- During instruction, the teacher asks a student to identify the sound at the beginning or end of a word. (e.g., What sound do you hear at the beginning of fun?)
- Phoneme blending is the ability to produce individual sounds and put them together to create a word.
- In a blending lesson, the instructor gives students the sounds in a word (/c/ /a/ /t/) and asks them to blend the sounds together to make the whole word (cat).
- Phoneme segmentation is the ability to separate a word into its individual sounds.
- During instruction, students may be asked to indicate where a sound is heard in a word (e.g., at the beginning, in the middle, at the end).
- The student hears the whole word (pig) and gives the individual phonemes heard in the word (/p/ /i/ /g/).
- Phoneme manipulation involves adding, omitting, and changing sounds in words.
- A teacher can provide a word (stop), then ask the student to repeat the word, and say the word again without one of the sounds. (e.g., Students will say the word top without /s/.)
2 Phonics instruction should be explicit, systematic, and sequential, so students are taught skills that build upon each other.
Reading A-Z's sister website Writing A-Z provides key resources for the Writing Workshop. During Writing Workshop, teachers provide instruction on the various forms of writing, and students learn the basics of Process Writing.
- Students begin to map spelling patterns when they are specifically taught the connections between sounds and how they’re spelled (graphemes).
- Students begin to read words that contain new sounds and their related spelling.
- Decoding new sounds with previously learned sounds, students are able to decode an increasing number of words.
- In a structured literacy program, students read carefully selected texts that contain previously taught phonics skills.
- Include learned phonics patterns.
- Reading decodable texts leads to orthographic mapping—which happens when the brain connects letters and sounds, spelling, pronunciation, and the meaning of words—and automaticity, or when the reader encounters the same word or combination of phonemes in another setting.
Encoding (Spelling) Practice
- Students in a structured literacy program can use their knowledge of phonics to spell words phonetically.
- Teachers ask students to utilize known sound-spelling relationships to spell and write words.
- Teachers dictate the sounds in words as students spell the words.
- Teachers analyze spelling errors and use the information to guide spelling instruction.
- In a structured literacy framework, high frequency words (HFWs) are often taught according to phonics patterns.
- HFWs that do not follow a phonics pattern should be taught explicitly.
- Orthographic mapping, or the ability to quickly recognize words “by sight” upon looking at their spelling pattern, is critical for students to learn HFW.
- Through read-alouds, teachers can help students make connections to previously learned phonics skills by pointing out specific words and sounds.
- Books and stories read aloud to an individual student or whole group of students help to develop comprehension and vocabulary.